Was tun bei Diabetes? 9 krasse Tipps
Diabetes mellitus DMcommonly known as diabetes Um bei Diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulinor the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy dietregular physical exercisea normal body weight, Um bei Diabetes avoiding use of tobacco. The standard symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight losspolyuria increased urination Um bei Diabetes, polydipsia increased thirstand polyphagia increased hunger. Other symptoms of diabetes include weight loss and tiredness.
Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease.
In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred visionheadachefatigueslow healing of cutsand itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eyewhich leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes.
Long-term vision loss can also be caused by diabetic retinopathy. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
People usually with type 1 diabetes may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis DKAa metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal painthe smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathingand in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.
A Um bei Diabetes but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state HHSwhich is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration.
Treatment-related low blood sugar hypoglycemia is common in people with type 1 and also type 2 diabetes depending on the medication being used. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies. Effects can range from feelings of uneasesweatingtremblingand increased appetite in mild cases to more serious effects such as confusionchanges in behavior such as aggressivenessseizuresunconsciousnessand rarely permanent brain damage or death in severe cases.
Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon. All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years 10—20 but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time. The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels. The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
It is recommended that people with diabetes visit an eye doctor once a year. Diabetes-related foot problems such as diabetic foot ulcers may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation. Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy Um bei Diabetes painful muscle atrophy and weakness.
There is a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes. Compared to those without Um bei Diabetes, those with the disease have a 1. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Although it has been called "juvenile diabetes" due to the frequent onset in children, the majority of individuals living with type 1 diabetes are now adults.
This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used. Other complications include an impaired counterregulatory response to low blood sugar, infection, gastroparesis which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydratesand endocrinopathies e. In genetically susceptible people, the onset of diabetes can be triggered by Um bei Diabetes or more environmental factors such as a viral infection or diet. Several viruses have been implicated, but to date there is no stringent evidence to support this hypothesis in humans.
Type 1 diabetes can Um bei Diabetes at any age, and a significant proportion is diagnosed during adulthood. Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults LADA is the diagnostic term applied when type 1 diabetes develops in adults; it has a slower onset than the same condition in children.
Given this difference, some use the unofficial term "type 1. Adults with LADA are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes, based on age rather than Um bei Diabetes . Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistancewhich may be Um bei Diabetes with relatively reduced insulin secretion.
However, the specific defects are not known. Diabetes mellitus cases due to a known defect are classified separately. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes mellitus.
Type 2 diabetes is primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics. Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption Um bei Diabetes sugar -sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk. Gestational diabetes mellitus GDM resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required .
Though it may be transient, untreated GDM can damage the health of the fetus or mother. Risks to the baby include macrosomia high birth weightcongenital heart and central nervous system abnormalities, and Um bei Diabetes muscle malformations. Increased levels of insulin in a fetus's blood may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause infant respiratory distress syndrome.
A high blood bilirubin level may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function.
A caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia. Maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production.
The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature. Being due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus there are at Um bei Diabetes 13 subtypes of MODY.
People with MODY often can control it without using insulin. Genetic mutations autosomal or mitochondrial can lead to defects in beta cell function. Abnormal insulin action may also Um bei Diabetes been genetically determined in some cases.
Any disease that causes extensive damage to the Um bei Diabetes may lead to diabetes for example, chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis. Diseases associated with excessive secretion Um bei Diabetes insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed.
Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells, whereas others increase insulin resistance especially glucocorticoids which can provoke " steroid diabetes ". The following is a list of disorders that may increase the risk of diabetes: . Um bei Diabetes is the principal hormone that regulates the uptake Um bei Diabetes glucose from the blood into most cells of the body, especially liver, adipose tissue and muscle, except smooth muscle, in which insulin acts via the IGF Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors play a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus.
Um bei Diabetes body obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen glycogenolysisthe storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesisthe generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body. Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into Um bei Diabetes and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.
Insulin is Um bei Diabetes by about two-thirds of the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other Um bei Diabetes molecules, or for storage. Lower glucose levels result in decreased insulin release from the beta cells and in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagonwhich acts in the opposite manner to insulin. If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin insulin resistanceor if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose is not absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and is not stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesisand other metabolic derangements, such as Um bei Diabetes acidosis in cases of complete insulin Um bei Diabetes.
When glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, the kidneys reach a threshold of reabsorptionand the body excretes glucose in the urine glycosuria. Lost blood volume is replaced osmotically from water in Um bei Diabetes cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst polydipsia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent high blood sugar, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following: .
A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood sugar, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the above methods on a different day. It is preferable to measure a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and the considerable time commitment of formal glucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantage over the fasting test.
Per the WHO, people with fasting glucose levels from 6. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease. Glycated hemoglobin is better than fasting glucose for determining risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause.
The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use is similar in all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization Um bei Diabetes, urbanization, population aging, and Um bei Diabetes general health policy environment.
Diabetes management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished with dietary changes, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications insulin, oral medications. Learning about the disease and actively participating in the treatment is important, since complications are far less common and less severe in people who have well-managed blood sugar levels.
These include smokinghigh blood pressuremetabolic syndrome obesityand lack of regular exercise. People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and Um bei Diabetes, dietary changes, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both Um bei Diabetes and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds.
In addition, given the associated higher risks of cardiovascular disease, Um bei Diabetes modifications are recommended to control blood pressure. Weight loss can prevent progression from prediabetes to diabetes type 2decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, or result in a partial remission in people with diabetes. Um bei Diabetes medications used to treat diabetes act by lowering blood sugar levels through different mechanisms.
There is broad consensus that when people with diabetes maintain tight glucose control — keeping the glucose levels in their blood within normal ranges — that they experience fewer complications like kidney problems and eye problems. There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic medications.
Some medications for type 2 diabetes are available by mouth, such as metforminwhile others are only available by injection such as GLP-1 agonists. These include agents that increase insulin release sulfonylureasagents that decrease absorption of sugar from the intestines acarboseagents that make the body more sensitive to insulin Thiazolidinedione and agents Um bei Diabetes increase Um bei Diabetes excretion of glucose in the urine SGLT2 inhibitors.
The only additional benefit found for blood pressure targets beneath this range was an isolated decrease in stroke risk, and this was accompanied by an increased risk of other serious adverse Um bei Diabetes.
Weight loss surgery Um bei Diabetes those with obesity and type 2 diabetes is often an effective measure. In countries using a general practitioner Um bei Diabetes, such as the United Kingdom, Um bei Diabetes may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects.
In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique.